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Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…