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Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…