Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Calibration Errors and Testing

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The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

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Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Insertion Flowmeters

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This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

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The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Examples of PLC Systems

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Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

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Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

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A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Dimensional Analysis

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An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

General Problem-solving Techniques

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A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Dampers and Louvres

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A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

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This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

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Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

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By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

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Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

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A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

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To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Actuator Bench-set

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Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

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So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…