Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…