Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…