Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…