Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…