Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…