Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…