Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

New Content

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Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Level Sensor Accessories

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Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

References

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Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

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The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…