Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…