Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…