Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…