Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…