Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…