Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…