Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…