Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…