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Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…