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Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

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A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

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Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Control Valve Sizing

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When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

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The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Relation Control

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A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

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A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Radiation Level Measurement

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Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

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Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

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Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Process/Instrument Suitability

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Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

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A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

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Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Metering Pumps

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A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

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Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Level Switches

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A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Numerical Integration

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As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

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As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Proximity Switches

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A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

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A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Logic programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…