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Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…