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Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…