Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…