Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…