Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…