Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…