Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

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Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…