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Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…