Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…