Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…