General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…