Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Numerical Integration

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As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

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Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

General Problem-solving Techniques

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A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Calibration Errors and Testing

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The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

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There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

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To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Basics of Electrical Current

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Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Proportional-only Offset

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A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

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A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Dampers and Louvres

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A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Control Valve Sizing

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When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Transfer Function Analysis

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An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

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Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

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A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

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Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

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Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

The Concept of Integration

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Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

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Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

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The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

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Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Principles, not Procedures

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One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

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Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…