Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…