Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…