Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…