Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…