Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

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RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

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Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

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Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

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Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

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Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

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Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

The Concept of Integration

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Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

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To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

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Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

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A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

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In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

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A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Weight-based Level Measurement

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Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

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Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…