Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…