Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…