DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…