Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…