AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…