Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…