WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…