What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

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A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

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An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

The Concept of Differentiation

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Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

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Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

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One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Principles, not Procedures

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One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Level Sensor Accessories

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Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

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Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Error Corrections

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Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Solenoid Valves

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A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Ratio Control

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Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

The International System of Units

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The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

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Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

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The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Proportional-only Offset

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A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Valve Seat Leakage

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In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

What are Simple Machines?

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A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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