Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…