WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…