Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…