Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…