Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…