Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…