Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

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A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

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Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…