Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…