Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…