Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

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Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

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A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

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Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

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An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…