Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…