Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Supervisory Control

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In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

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One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Interconnected Generators

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Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

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Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

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Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

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An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

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A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

AC Motor Speed Control

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AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

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A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

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Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Temperature Switches

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A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

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Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Logic programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

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A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…