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Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…