Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…