Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

General Problem-solving Techniques

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A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

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The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…