Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…