Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…