Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

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While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

DC Motor Speed Control

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DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Distance (21) Protection

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A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

What is Electrical Power?

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Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Differential (87) Current Protection

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One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Basics of Electrical Current

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Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

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The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

What are Simple Machines?

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A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Principles, not Procedures

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One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

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The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

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The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Material Volume Measurement

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A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

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This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

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Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

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A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

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Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

The International System of Units

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The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Dampers and Louvres

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A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Level Switches

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A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Laminar Flowmeters

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A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

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Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…