Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…