What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…