Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

General Problem-solving Techniques

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A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

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There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

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A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…