Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…