FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…