Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Calibration Errors and Testing

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The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

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In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

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The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

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Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

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“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

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A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Transfer Function Analysis

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An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

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In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Interconnected Generators

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Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Different PID Equations

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For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Differential (87) Current Protection

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One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Derivative (Rate) Control

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The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…