True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…