True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…