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Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…