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Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Proximity Switches

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A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…