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Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

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A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Practical PID Controller Features

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In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Numerical Integration

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As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Error Corrections

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Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

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The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

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The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

The Concept of Integration

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Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Derivative (Rate) Control

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The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…