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Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…