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Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…