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Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…