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Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…