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Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…