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Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…