Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…