Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Ratio Control

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Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

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Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Safety Gas Analyzers

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Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Material Volume Measurement

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A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

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A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

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The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

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First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

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A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

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The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

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Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

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The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

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Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Digital Representation of Text

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Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

PID Control Terminology

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PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

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Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

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Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

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Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

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Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

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It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Control Valve Characterization

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Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Calibration Errors and Testing

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The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

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Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Laminar Flowmeters

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A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Supervisory Control

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In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

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Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Overpressure Protection Devices

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Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Digital PID Algorithms

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Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

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The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Metering Pumps

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A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Distance (21) Protection

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A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

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“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

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A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…