Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…