Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…