A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

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In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

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Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

What are Simple Machines?

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A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Teaching Technical Theory

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Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Sliding-stem Valves

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A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

The Concept of Differentiation

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Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Level Switches

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A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Numerical Integration

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As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

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The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Actuator Bench-set

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Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Overpressure Protection Devices

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Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

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The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Sliding-stem Valves

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A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

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Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Control Valve Sizing

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When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Level Sensor Accessories

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Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Logic programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Actuator Bench-set

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Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

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Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

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Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

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The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

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By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

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Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Overpressure Protection Devices

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Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

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Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

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It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Pressure Switches

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A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

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Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Weight-based Level Measurement

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Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

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This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Valve Failure Mode

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An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Proportional-only Offset

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A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…