Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…