Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…