Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…