Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…