Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…