Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…