Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…