Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…