Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…