Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

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So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

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Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

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The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Level Switches

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A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Solenoid Valves

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A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Introduction to Calculus

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Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Ratio Control

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Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Control Valve Characterization

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Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

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In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Common Control Valve Problems

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Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

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In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

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A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Laminar Flowmeters

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A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Practical Topic Coverage

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Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Teaching Technical Theory

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Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

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A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

PID Control Terminology

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PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Radiation Level Measurement

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Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Valve Failure Mode

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An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Transfer Function Analysis

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An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

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Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…