Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…