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An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook