Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…