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The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…