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4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

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The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Fluorescence Measurement

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When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

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So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

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Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

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(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

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A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

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The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

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Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Different PID Equations

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For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

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A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Instrument Identification Tags

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Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

The Basics of Control Relays

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An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

AC Motor Braking

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There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Proximity Switches

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A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Dampers and Louvres

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A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

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A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

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An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…