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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Proximity Switches

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A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

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A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Valve Failure Mode

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An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

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Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Basics of Electrical Current

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Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

New Content

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Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

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Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Electronic Structure

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Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Transfer Function Analysis

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An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

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Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

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A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

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Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

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By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Level Switches

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A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…