Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…