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Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Weight-based Level Measurement

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Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

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Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

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A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

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A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

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The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…