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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Overpressure Protection Devices

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Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Pressure Switches

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A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

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By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

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A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

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A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

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The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

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Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

References

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Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

AC Motor Braking

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There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

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A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

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Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

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RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

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So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

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“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Laminar Flowmeters

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A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

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Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Dimensional Analysis

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An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

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A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

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Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

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A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…