Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…