Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…