Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…