Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…