Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

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A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Weight-based Level Measurement

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Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Error Corrections

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Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

References

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Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…