In our circuitry, we are in need to provide a square wave input from the vehicle hall effect sensor to the controller. Here, we have used a pull-up resistor (as the sensor is of open collector type), a current limiter resistor and a pull-down resistor and a capacitor. The initial 8V signal changes to 5V. also, there is some offset. I need to know how offsets are created and what are the basic conditions in designing for signal conditioning. How is the duty cycle of the signal considered?