# Surface Energy of Liquids and Liquid Metals

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#### M.H. Ghatee

We have derived an equation related to the surface energy over the whole liquid range. This removes the singularity of surface tension and surface energy at the critical temperature perfectly. Also application of first and second law is now parameterized by the critical exponent. We like to see: - a clear definition of the equation - whether this is a modification of combined first and second law - advantages of removing the singularity

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#### jmGiraud

> We have derived an equation related to the surface energy over the whole liquid range. This removes the singularity of surface tension and surface energy at the critical temperature perfectly. Also application of first and second law is now parameterized by the critical exponent. We like to see: - a clear definition of the equation - whether this is a modification of combined first and second law - advantages of removing the singularity _____________________ This is quite puzzling: by saying "we have ..." It certainly means you/your fellow workers did the project. You don't offer looking at it, and on the top you want somebody commenting about what you did. Could you explain your question ?

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#### M.H. Ghatee

Thank you for commenting even though every things puzzeled you, and sorry for delay in responding you. I just noticed your reply. Sure your are familiar with the variation of surface energy Es far and close to the critical temperature Tc. Of course it varies smoothly far from the Tc and sharply close to Tc and vanishes at Tc. On the other hand the expression for Es is actually combination of first and second law of thermodynamics. The expression we found, Es', is parameterized by miu, the critical exponent for the surface tension, e.g., Es'=(gama + T/miu(d(sigma)/dT), where gama is surface tension and T is the temperature. This expression is similar to the expression for Es as usually (and simply)is dervied in classical thermodynamic except for the parameter miu. Therefore in a sense one can inquire a modification of the combined first and second laws. Recalling that Es' is not singular at the Tc, my question is that if anybody has expreince such a modifed law. Put it in another way is this true as long as the laws are concerned. Thank you again You may contact me at [email protected]