Feedback to the microcontroller in controlling the speed of a DC motor


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I am doing a project based on speed control of a DC motor using microcontroller. The problem is with the feedback signal. I am presently working on coding part of MCU. If I measure the speed of the motor, then how would I send the speed value to microcontroller so that it runs at a speed I wish to?

Please help me. I am trying to run the motor at what ever the speed I require.

And one more thing I need to know is whether a microcontroller can detect the voltage level of the signal that is applied to one of its port pins, i.e. if I send a voltage nearer to 4.5 V at some pin of some port, can the microcontroller detect the voltage value that made the pin to activate?