Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Chapter 8 - Introduction to Industrial Instrumentation

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Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject matter of this chapter, given for the purpose of expanding the reader’s view of this chapter’s concepts and of their general inter-relationships with concepts elsewhere in the book. Your abilities as a problem-solver and as a life-long learner will be greatly enhanced by mastering the applications of these principles to a wide variety of topics, the more varied the better.

  • Blacklisting: the concept of flagging certain users, software applications, etc. as “forbidden’ from accessing a system.
  • Chemical isotopes: variants of chemical elements differing fundamentally in atomic mass. Relevant to the subject of uranium enrichment for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons, where one particular isotope must be separated from (“enriched”) another isotope in order to be useful.
  • Defense-in-Depth: a design philosophy relying on multiple layers of protection, the goal being to maintain some degree of protection in the event of one or more other layers failing.
  • Reliability: a statistical measure of the probability that a system will perform its design function. Relevant here with regard to control systems, in that proper control system design can significantly enhance the reliability of a large system if the controls are able to isolate faulted redundant elements within that system. This is the strategy used by designers of the Iranian uranium enrichment facility, using PLC controls to monitor the health of many gas centrifuges used to enrich uranium, and taking failed centrifuges off-line while maintaining continuous production.
  • Whitelisting: the concept of only permitting certain users, software applications, etc. to access a system.