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Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…