Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…