Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…