Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…