Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…