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Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

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Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

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Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Valve Seat Leakage

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In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

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The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

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Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Actuator Bench-set

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Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

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Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

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Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Sliding-stem Valves

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A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Introduction to Calculus

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Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Introduction to Modbus

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Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

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Capacitance Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Examples of PLC Systems

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Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Weight-based Level Measurement

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Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Tube and Tube Fittings

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Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

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A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

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Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

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A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

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To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

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Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

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A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

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This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

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Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Supervisory Control

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In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

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Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

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Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

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An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

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Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

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Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

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A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…