Instrument Identification Tags

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Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Actuator Bench-set

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Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

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A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Control Valve Characterization

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Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Solenoid Valves

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A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Numerical Integration

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As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

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Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

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Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

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A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

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This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

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Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

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Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

What is Electrical Power?

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Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

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Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

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A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

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A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

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“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Tube and Tube Fittings

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Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

What are Simple Machines?

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A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Pressure Switches

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A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

True Mass Flowmeters

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Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

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Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

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Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

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Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Differential (87) Current Protection

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One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

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Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Metering Pumps

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A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Insertion Flowmeters

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This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Relation Control

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A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

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To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…