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Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Capacitance Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

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In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Level Sensor Accessories

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Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

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Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Valve Failure Modes

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

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Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

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A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…