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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

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(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

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Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…