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Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…