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Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…