Categories

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Capacitance Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…