Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…