Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…