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Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Safety Gas Analyzers

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Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Dimensional Analysis

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An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Derivative (Rate) Control

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The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

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A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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Digital PID Algorithms

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Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

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Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

The Concept of Integration

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Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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Pneumatic PID Controllers

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A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

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Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

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The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Dampers and Louvres

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A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

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“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

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To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

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Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…