Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

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Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Error Corrections

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Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

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Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

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Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

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Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

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Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Radiation Level Measurement

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Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Tube and Tube Fittings

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Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Derivative (Rate) Control

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The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

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The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Common Educational Fallacies

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When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

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RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

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Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

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Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

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The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Teaching Technical Theory

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Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Proportional-only Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…