Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…