Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…