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Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…