Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

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Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

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To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

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The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Overpressure Protection Devices

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Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

What is Electrical Power?

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Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Instrument Identification Tags

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Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

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An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Dampers and Louvres

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A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

References

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Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Numerical Integration

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As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

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Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

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A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

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First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Laminar Flowmeters

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A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

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The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

True Mass Flowmeters

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Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

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Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

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Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Dimensional Analysis

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An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…