Latest I/O Devices and Sensors Education

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“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…