Latest Electromechanical Components Education

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Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Differential (87) Current Protection

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One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Distance (21) Protection

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A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Logic Programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

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An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

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The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

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Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

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Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Relation Control

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A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

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Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

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Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

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The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

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A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

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Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Logic Programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

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One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Weighfeeders

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A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

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The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…