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High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…