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Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

General Problem-solving Techniques

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A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

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Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

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Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

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A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…