Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…