Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Logic programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

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There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Policy-based Fortifications

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These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

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So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Examples of PLC Systems

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Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Level Sensor Accessories

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Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

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Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

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A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

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Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

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A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

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The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

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Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

The Concept of Integration

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Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

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Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

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Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Digital PID Algorithms

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Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

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A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…