Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…