Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…