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FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…