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Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…