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FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

Linearity of Measurement Instruments The purpose of calibration is to…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…