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High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…