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What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…