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Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…