Categories

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…