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Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…