Latest Turbine / Alt Energy Control Education

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Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…