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Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

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Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

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Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…