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Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Physics and Chemistry Terminology and Definitions

Textbook

Atom: the smallest unit of matter that may be isolated by chemical…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…