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Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…