Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…