Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…