Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…