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Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…