Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…