Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…