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Process and Instrument Diagrams

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The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Control Valve Sizing

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When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

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Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

What is Electrical Power?

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Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

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The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

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Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

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Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

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In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

New Content

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Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

The Concept of Differentiation

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Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Transfer Function Analysis

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An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…